In the 19th century it becomes different. Continue reading: A certain embarrassment. The Chmielnicki pogroms in Ukraine killed a third of the Jewish population. In Spain, the entire population was expelled. In medieval England, the entire population was murdered or expelled. The entire Jewish populations of major cities in Germany were exterminated during the Crusades.
The technology may have been lacking for global murder, but certainly the spirit was strong. They were not accused of conquering the world. They were different and they were disturbing and they were speaking another language. They refused to be converted. He needed secular anti-Semitism. They are dominating the banks, the newspapers. Voltaire was a terrible anti-Semite. At the same time, the Roman Catholic Church he despised was also anti-Semitic.
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The Jews should be eliminated either for religious or for secular and anti-religious reasons. The Jews live too long. The Jews are physically weak. Jews are wealthy and dominate everything. The Jews are poor vermin and pose a danger to public health. I have been always fascinated by that, maybe because according to some of my friends I have a Talmudic spirit. My grandfather was a foundling. So, I always said, maybe he was. But my grandmother was clearly a goy, so I am not Jewish.
- Eco, Umberto.
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Novelists are generally very sensitive at whatever level in their own psyches to whatever is going on in the worlds around them. So, why did you write this book now? There can be many reasons. One is that I was interested in forgeries and then in Protocols. At a certain moment, as it happens when you have finished a previous book and you are looking around—oh, why not?
I was a devotee of popular novels of the 19th century. The literature on the Protocols is enormous.
But being old, academic books they were not as accessible, and the Protocols are still believed. So, maybe I wrote my novel to give it a narrative form, to explain, through narrative, how such a concoction is possible. Maybe it can reach a larger number of people than the academic literature can.
- Umberto Eco - Foucault's Pendulum - Literatură?
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But in the beginning I was not convinced because the material was dirty, it was stinky. I felt a certain embarrassment. The anti-German is half Nietzsche and half a book written by a Frenchman at the beginning of the First World War, the one in which the Germans produced more fecal matter than other people. Within the Jewish community one of the historical reactions to the moment that you write about, to the Dreyfus case, was Zionism. You have Theodore Herzl, a Viennese journalist, who is sitting in Paris at the same time as your Simonini is.
Herzl was like Disraeli. And in fact, Toussanel was using Disraeli to say that, it is true, there is a Jewish conspiracy. Do you know that this one is a Jew? There are people who are not anti-Semites by nature but leftists. Being with the Arabs and becoming anti-Israeli, they automatically become anti-Semitic. I had to open a critical discussion with the boycotters, especially in England, in the journal Translation , a very good journal. There were two Tel Aviv scholars, notoriously critical of their government, who were expelled, which is obviously another form of racism.
Because you are not responsible for what Netanyahu is doing in this moment, as I am not responsible for the deeds of Berlusconi even though he and I are both Italians. The shifting from anti-Israel-ism to anti-Semitism is pretty natural. You know, Saramago was against every religion. He had a very anarchist spirit. He was a nice person. You feel you know a person through his books. You can feel the spirit of a person. And then to hear this stuff so at odds with the person that I knew very well from my reading was a shock. We have always to make a distinction between texts and authors.
Foucault's Pendulum Quotes
Take Ezra Pound. He was really a fascist in the political space. But he was simply an anarchist who was against the accumulation of money. And living in Italy at that time, he had the impression that fascism was good.
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One can be a great poet and be politically stupid. I love Journey to the End of Night. But some of his texts are really racist. You cannot say he was a racist in his private life and these texts are not—no, no. There is a strict link there. So, you have to be very well-balanced and prudent as a critic to appreciate a writer in spite of his positions. No problem.
tihuttingsi.tk And the anti-Semitism really is part of his work. Talk to me about being a child in fascist Italy and growing up in school with this sense of the vast democratic-capitalist-Jewish conspiracy targeting your country, and what that felt like. During the fascist education, like everybody else I wrote texts saying that I wanted to die for my country, for the greatness of Italy. I would say it with a certain cynicism. Because they say that kids like me love Mussolini.
Is it true? Or I am sick? A moment later the couple went off -- he, trained on some textbook that had blunted his capacity for wonder, she, inert and insensitive to the thrill of the infinite, both oblivious of the awesomeness of their encounter -- their first and last encounter -- with the One, the Ein-Sof, the Ineffable.
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How could you fail to kneel down before this altar of certitude? Caus knew that if one fills a vessel with water and seals it at the top, the water, even if one then opens a hole in the bottom, will not come out. But if one opens a hole in the top, also, the water spurts out below. The question is not why the water comes out in the second place, but why it refuses to come out in the first case.
Nequaquam vacui was a Rosicrucian principle, which modern science has forgotten.